General Format

  • Authors(Last name First Name Initial). Article title. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year Month Date; Volume Number(Issue Number):Inclusive Pages.
  • The words "volume" and "number" (or their abbreviations) are usually omitted when citing journal articles, but are included when citing books.
  • Note: Titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus. The list of abbreviations can be found here.

Example:
Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, de Wardener HE, MacGregor GA. Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases. Physiol Rev. 2005 Apr;85(2):679-715.

 
Jun BC, Song SW, Park CS, Lee DH, Cho KJ, Cho JH. The analysis of maxillary sinus aeration according to aging process: volume assessment by 3-dimensional reconstruction by high-resolutional CT scanning. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 Mar;132(3):429-34.

No Author given

  • When there is no author, begin the citation with the title of the article. Do not use anonymous.
  • Title. Article title. Journal Title. Date of Publication. Vol. (issue): page numbers. Place of Publication.

Example:
Drug-resistance tuberculosis among the foreign-born in Canada. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2005 Feb 15;31(4):46-52. English, French.

Part of an article

  • Authors. Article Title: Journal Title. Date of Publication; Volume(Issue):Location. Name and Number of Part, Title of Part; p. Location of Part.

Example:
Butany J, Carmichael K, Leong SW, Collins MJ. Coronary artery stents: identification and evaluation. J Clin Pathol. 2005 Aug;58(8):795-804. Table 3, Common stent complications; p.796.

Online Journal

  • Author(s). Article Title. Abbreviated journal name [Type of Medium(e.g. Internet)]. Date of Publication [cited Date of Citation];Vol(issue number): Location. Available from: URL

Example:
Kaul S, Diamond GA. Good enough: a primer on the analysis and interpretation of non-inferiority trials. Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2006 Jul 4 [cited 2007 Jan 4];145(1):62-9. Available from: http://www.annals.org/cgi/reprint/145/1/62.pdf

 
Happell B. The influence of education on the career preferences of undergraduate nursing students. Aust Electron J Nurs Educ [Internet]. 2002 Apr [cited 2007 Jan 8];8(1):[about 12 p.]. Available from: http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/nhcp/aejne/vol8-1/refereed/happell_max.html

Online Journal from a database

  • The general format for a reference to a database/retrieval system on the Internet, including punctuation:
    • For a single database:
      • Title [Type of Medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication [modified Date of Update/Revision; Date of Citation]. Available from: URL.

      Example: Database of Human Disease Causing Gene Homologues in Dictyostelium Discoideum [Internet]. San Diego (CA): San Diego Supercomputer Center; 2003 [modified 2003 Mar 30; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from: http://dictyworldbench.sdsc.edu/HDGDD/.

Newspaper

  • Authors. Article Title. Newspaper Title (Edition). Date of Publication: Section: Location(Column Number).
  • Names of newspapers are NEVER abbreviated, although a leading "The" may be dropped if desired.
  • The location where a newspaper is published is added to the title if the newspaper title does not indicate it, either within or after the title, as appropriate.
  • Section information, if present, replaces volume and issue information.
  • Only the beginning page number of an article is included.

Example:
Gaul G. When geography influences treatment options. Washington Post (Maryland Ed.). 2005 Jul 24:Sect. A:12(col.1).

Conference Proceedings

  • Editors. Conference Title; Date of Conference; Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication. Pagination.

Example:
Dostrovsky JO, Carr DB, Koltenburg M, editors. Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Pain; 2002 Aug 17-22; San Diego, CA. Seattle: IASP Press; c2003.

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