Italics instead of Underlining for Titles

  • Use italics in place of underlining for independently published works (books, periodicals, etc). See the examples below for how to cite different types of publications.

Medium of Publication

  • MLA now requires that all citations include documentation of the "medium" of the publication (Print, Web, Performance, Photograph, etc). Generally, the designator is the last element included in an entry, except for web resources which are followed by the date of access.

You don't need the URL Anymore

  • MLA no longer requires the URL to be included for web sources. If however the citation doesn't easily lead the reader to the source it is recommended to include a URL.

Pagination Changes

  • In past versions of MLA you would cite a periodical differently if each issue started with page 1, from one where the page numbers continued issue to issue for an entire volume. This is no longer the case. For all periodical citations include both volume and issue numbers (e.g. 115.1). Take a look at the examples included for periodicals throughout this document.

Abbreviations for Web Sources

  • When documenting web sources MLA now requires notation of the publisher or sponsor of the site. When no publisher is listed use "N.p." For web sources that do not have page numbers, indicate such in the citation using the notation of "n. pag." You are also required to indicate the date of publication which many web sources do not indicate, in these instances use "n.d." for no date.

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