Citations are listed in notes (footnotes or endnotes) and can be included in a bibliography. If the bibliography includes all works cited in the notes, the note citations can be shortened. For works with no bibliography or a selected list, notes must include full details.

In-Text Citation

  • Citation includes a reference number set as superior or superscript; located at the end of a sentence following any punctuation or closing parenthesis
  • Reference numbers begin with 1 and continue through each article or chapter, numbering restarts for each chapter division
  • Notes for tables or illustrations are numbered separately

"This," wrote George Templeton Strong, "is what our tailors can do." (In an earlier book he had said quite the opposite.)2

Footnotes or endnotes are listed at the bottom of the page where the citation exists

  • Footnotes with a bibliography: number. author last name, title, page number
  • Notes without a bibliography: number. author full name, title: subtitle (city of publication: publisher, publication year), page number

Example Note:
2. Haugen, Video Game Theory Reader, 53.

Example Note:
2. David F. Haugen, Video Game Theory Reader: A New Era (Chicago: Newport Press, 2008), 53.

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