All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | article title | journal title | volume, |issue number | publication year | URL | page numbers | accessed date

  • Titles of journals are italicized, article titles are in quotes

Electronic Journal Article from a Database

Example Note:

33. Raphael Rubinstein, "Provisional Painting", Art in America 97, no. 5 (2009),


Example Bibliography:
Rubinstein, Raphael. "Provisional Painting". Art in America 97, no. 5 (2009), (accessed 2009 June 4).

Two authors

  • All names are usually given in a bibliography or reference list. Word order and punctuation are the same as for three authors. In a note or a text citation, only the name of the first author is included, followed by "and others" or, especially in science, "et al.," with no intervening comma


  • The month and day need to be included if there is no volume, issue numbers or dates of update
  • A year and possibly an exact date, a month, or a season, appears in parentheses after the volume or or issue number. Seasons are capitalized when standing in lieu of a month or an issue number. Neither month nor season is necessary when the issue number is given
  • For a span of months, use a hyphen (e.g., March-April)

Volumes and issues

  • The volume number follows the journal title without intervening punctuation and is not in italics. Issue number follows volume number
  • Write both volumes and issues numbers in Arabic numerals

Print this section