Chicago Citation Quick Guide

15th Edition (16th Edition was released in 2010, this guide does not reflect the new edition)

The Chicago Manual of Style has two methods of documentation, the humanities style (notes and bibliography) and the author-date style. The humanities style is preferred in literature, history, and the arts. The author-date method is useful in the physical, natural, and social sciences. Sources are cited in the text: (authors last name, publication date, and page number). Details about each reference are listed in the References or Works Cited page, by: Author's last name.

 

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Author Date

References/Works Cited and In-text Citations

References or Works Cited

  • Entries in the list are ordered alphabetically by author's last name, or if no author is given, by the title or a keyword

In Text Citations

Single Author

  • There MUST be an entry in the reference list for every text citation. List the author's last name followed by the year

Example:

Video games can provide health benefits to the sick (Haugen 2008).

Multiple Works Published by the Same Author in Different Years

  • List the author and the years in chronological sequence

Example:
Studies of gamer's at play (Flanders 1970, 1975) have shown that...

Multiple Authors

  • For 2 authors, list both names in the in-text reference, separated by "and"

Example:
...and the most recent work on Tetris (Sareth and Nukem 2001) is...

  • For more than 2 authors, list the first author followed by "et al." or "and others" and the year

Example:
... but later studies (Haugen et al. 2008) determined that...

 
... but in later studies by Haugen and others (2008) it was determined that...

Corporation or Organization as Authors

  • List the initial letter of each part of name or readily recognizable abbreviation and the year

Example:

The landmark report on nuclear power (SNPP 1979) was...

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Journals

All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | date | article title | journal title | volume | issue | page numbers | database name | release number | database publisher | cited year | url | document number


Electronic Journal Article from a Database

  • If there is a digital object identifier (DOI) for the source, include it in place of page numbers

Example of an Electronic Journal:
Skinner S. 2005. Evolution or intelligent design: the menu model of elementary science instruction. Science Educator. 32(2) 1975-2008. In Science Direct [database on the Internet]. Release 3. NY: Science Direct Publishing; 2005. 33p. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect/scienceeducator/32/2/skinner;(accessed 2008 May 4).

Multiple Authors

  • The first author's name is inverted, followed by "and" then the second author's full name
  • More than two: List first author's name inverted, use "and" before the last author's name
  • More than 10: List first 7 followed by "et al"

Titles

  • Capitalize titles sentence style, without quotation marks. Titles and subtitles are separated by a colon, and the first word of the subtitle is always capitalized

Dates

  • The month and day need to be included if there is no volume, issue numbers or dates of update
  • A year and possibly an exact date, a month, or a season, appears in parentheses after the volume or or issue number. Seasons are capitalized when standing in lieu of a month or an issue number. Neither month nor season is necessary when the issue number is given
  • For a span of months, use a hyphen (e.g., March-April)

Volumes and issues

  • The volume number follows the journal title without intervening punctuation and is not in italics. Issue number follows volume number
  • Write both volumes and issues numbers in Arabic numerals
  • Place issue numbers in parentheses
  • If no volume numbers, a comma follows the journal title

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Books

All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | title | subtitle | editor, compiler or translater | edition | volume | series title | volume number |  publication: city, publisher, and date | page number | Source type: DVD, CD-ROM, or the URL location for an Internet source | date accessed

  • Include the edition if the citation is not the first
  • Include volume if a multi volume work is referred to as a whole
  • Include the volume number within a series if the series is numbered
  • Universally known publication cities such as New York or London can stand alone, if readers might be confused, or the a city with the same name exists, the state may be added with a comma after the city name
  • If the place of publication is unknown, n.p. may be used before the publisher's name within square brackets
  • Copyright dates are usually the same as publication dates. If the year of publication is unknown, the abbreviation n.d. in brackets, can be used in place of the year
  • If the year can be guessed, place the guessed year followed by a question mark (?) within brackets
  • For multiple years, only include the date that is of interest to the reader

Books with two through ten authors

  • List all author names in the order in which they appear on the title page. Only the first name is inverted
  • Use "and" between the authors names. For three authors, place "and" before the last author

Example:
Lumpkin, L. R., C. Simpson, and J. Hellsmuth, 3rd eds. 1989. Country singin' ain't for me. Washington, DC: Country Press.

Books with more than eleven authors

  • List the first seven author names followed by "et al", the first name being the only one inverted

Example:
Lumpkin, L. R., C. Simpson, A. Simpson, M. Burns, J. Lovejoy, B. Gumble, S. Christian, et al. 1989. Country singin' ain't for me. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Country Press.

Books with no authors

  • If there are editors, put the names of editors, "a comma (,) followed by the abbreviation "eds"
  • If there are no authors and editors, begin with the title

Example:
Simpson B., N. Callahan, eds. 1989. Country singin' ain't for me. Washington, DC: Country Press.

 
Country singin' ain't for me. 3rd Ed. 1989. Washington, DC: Country Press.

Books with both authors and editors

  • Place the author's name first, the abbreviation "ed." follows the title, then put the editors

Example:
Lumpkin, L. 1989. Country singin' ain't for me. 3rd ed. Powers R, Simpson L, eds. Washington, DC: Country Press.

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Dissertations and Theses

All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | date | title | content type(MFA, PhD) | academic instituition

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Patents

All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

creator | year of filing | title of patent | country code | patent | patent number | filed | filed date | issue date

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Newspapers

All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | year | article title | newspaper name | month, day of publication | section | edition

  • If the author is unknown, the name of the newspaper stands in place of the author name

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Internet & Other Electronic Sources

All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | year | title | subtitle | site | url | date accessed

General

  • All resources that reside on the Internet are cited the same as materials appearing in print or electronically cited, with some additions
  • Scenes (individually accessible in DVDs) are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number, Note that online articles will generally not carry page numbers; for article-length material, however, descriptive 'locators' (see 16.14, 17.181) will rarely be necessary. add a URL and, if the publisher or discipline requires it, or for especially time-sensitive data, the date the material was last accessed

Example:
Cleese, J., T. Gilliam, E. Idle, T. Jones and M. Palin. 2001. Commentaries. Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, special ed. DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment.

  • Include an accessed date, especially for time sensitive material

Example:
Brancusi, A. and Frank Bolden. 2001. Crisis on Wallstreet. New York Times., March 25. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/03/25/politics/25MCCA.html (accessed January 2, 2002).

  • If there is a digital object identifier (DOI) for the source include it in place of page numbers or other locators

Example:
Allen, A. 2003. Tribal Notions. Slate March 25. doi:10.1006/sleh.2000.2694. http://www.slate.com/links/doi/10.1006/sleh.2000.2694.

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Notes Bibliography

In-text Notations and Footnotes (end notes)

Citations are listed in notes (footnotes or endnotes) and can be included in a bibliography. If the bibliography includes all works cited in the notes, the note citations can be shortened. For works with no bibliography or a selected list, notes must include full details.

In-Text Citation

  • Citation includes a reference number set as superior or superscript; located at the end of a sentence following any punctuation or closing parenthesis
  • Reference numbers begin with 1 and continue through each article or chapter, numbering restarts for each chapter division
  • Notes for tables or illustrations are numbered separately

Example:
"This," wrote George Templeton Strong, "is what our tailors can do." (In an earlier book he had said quite the opposite.)2

Footnotes or endnotes are listed at the bottom of the page where the citation exists

  • Footnotes with a bibliography: number. author last name, title, page number
  • Notes without a bibliography: number. author full name, title: subtitle (city of publication: publisher, publication year), page number

Example Note:
2. Haugen, Video Game Theory Reader, 53.

Example Note:
2. David F. Haugen, Video Game Theory Reader: A New Era (Chicago: Newport Press, 2008), 53.

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Bibliography

  • Appears at the end of the work, titled Bibliography or References
  • Entries are arranged alphabetically by last names of the authors or editor or by the title or a keyword
  • Titles are displayed with headline capitalization
  • Bibliography Entries Include: the author's name, title, publication city:Publisher, year of publication

Example Bibliography:
Galenson, David W. Artists and the Market: From Leonardo and Titian to Andy Warhol and Damien Hirst, NBER Working Paper Series. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2007.

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Journals

All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | article title | journal title | volume, |issue number | publication year | URL | page numbers | accessed date

  • Titles of journals are italicized, article titles are in quotes

Electronic Journal Article from a Database

Example Note:

33. Raphael Rubinstein, "Provisional Painting", Art in America 97, no. 5 (2009), http://www.systems.wsu.edu/scripts/wsuall.pl?url=http://search.ebscohost....

 

Example Bibliography:
Rubinstein, Raphael. "Provisional Painting". Art in America 97, no. 5 (2009), http://www.systems.wsu.edu/scripts/wsuall.pl?url=http://search.ebscohost.... (accessed 2009 June 4).

Two authors

  • All names are usually given in a bibliography or reference list. Word order and punctuation are the same as for three authors. In a note or a text citation, only the name of the first author is included, followed by "and others" or, especially in science, "et al.," with no intervening comma

Date

  • The month and day need to be included if there is no volume, issue numbers or dates of update
  • A year and possibly an exact date, a month, or a season, appears in parentheses after the volume or or issue number. Seasons are capitalized when standing in lieu of a month or an issue number. Neither month nor season is necessary when the issue number is given
  • For a span of months, use a hyphen (e.g., March-April)

Volumes and issues

  • The volume number follows the journal title without intervening punctuation and is not in italics. Issue number follows volume number
  • Write both volumes and issues numbers in Arabic numerals

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Books

All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | title | subtitle | editor, compiler or translater, | edition if not the first | volume | series title | publication city | publication year | page numbers | accessed date

Books with multiple authors

  • Lists volume information if a multi-volume work is referred to as a whole
  • List all the names of authors in the Bibliography, only list the first author in a note
  • Use "and" between the authors' names

Example Note:

             4. Calvin Tomkins and others, Off the Wall: Robert Rauschenberg and the Art World of Our Time (Garden City, Doubleday, 1980), 275-286.

 

Example Bibliography:
Tomkins, Calvin and Andrew Forge, Off the Wall: Robert Rauschenberg and the Art World of Our Time. Garden City: Doubleday, 1980.

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Dissertations and Theses

All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | title | type of content | academic institution | date

  • Type of content is usually MFA, PhD, etc

Example of Note:
25. Brad Adam Dinsmore, "Conversations" (MFA, Washington State University, 2009) 13.

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Patents

All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

creator name | year of filing | year of filing | patent title | edition | country code | patent number | filed date | issued date

Example Note:

33. Randall Chris Kurzweil, "Generating Visual Art" (US Patent 7,098,917 filed January 22, 2002).

 

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Newspapers

All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | year | article title | newspaper name | month day year of publication | section | edition

  • If the author is unknown, the name of the newspaper stands in place of the author name

Example Note: 1. Hamilton Arthur Zucker, "Where are Today's Leonardo's?", USA Today, June 3, 2009, first edition.

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Internet & Other Electronic Sources

All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | title | subtitle | edition | site name | URL or datasource | year | publisher | access date | DOI

  • All resources that reside on the Internet are cited the same as materials appearing in print or electronically cited, with some additions
  • If citing a URL, there is no need for a media category, for types such as DVD, CD-Rom, include the type
  • Include an accessed date, especially for time sensitive material
  • If there is a digital object identifier (DOI) for the source include it in place of page numbers or other locators

Example Note:
1. John Gilliam Cleese, Tim Jones and Michael Palin "Commentaries. Disc 2." Monty Python and the Holy Grail, (Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2001), DVD.

Example Bibliography:
Cleese, John Gilliam, Edgar Idle, Tim Jones and Michael Palin, "Commentaries. Disc 2. "Monty Python and the Holy Grail special ed. DVD. 2002. Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment.

Example Bibliography:
Brancusi, Arthur and Frank Bolden. "Crisis on Wallstreet" New York Times. March 25, 2002. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/03/25/politics/25MCCA.html (accessed January 2, 2002).

Example Bibliography:
Allen, A. 2003. Tribal Notions. Slate March 25. doi:10.1006/sleh.2000.2694. http://www.slate.com/links/doi/10.1006/sleh.2000.2694.

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Information was gathered from The Chicago Manual of Style Online. http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org (accessed June, 2009).