General Format

  • Authors(Last name First Name Initial). Article title. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year Month Date; Volume Number(Issue Number):Inclusive Pages.
  • The words "volume" and "number" (or their abbreviations) are usually omitted when citing journal articles, but are included when citing books.
  • Note: Titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus. The list of abbreviations can be found here.

Meneton P, Jeunemaitre X, de Wardener HE, MacGregor GA. Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases. Physiol Rev. 2005 Apr;85(2):679-715.

Jun BC, Song SW, Park CS, Lee DH, Cho KJ, Cho JH. The analysis of maxillary sinus aeration according to aging process: volume assessment by 3-dimensional reconstruction by high-resolutional CT scanning. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 Mar;132(3):429-34.

No Author given

  • When there is no author, begin the citation with the title of the article. Do not use anonymous.
  • Title. Article title. Journal Title. Date of Publication. Vol. (issue): page numbers. Place of Publication.

Drug-resistance tuberculosis among the foreign-born in Canada. Can Commun Dis Rep. 2005 Feb 15;31(4):46-52. English, French.

Part of an article

  • Authors. Article Title: Journal Title. Date of Publication; Volume(Issue):Location. Name and Number of Part, Title of Part; p. Location of Part.

Butany J, Carmichael K, Leong SW, Collins MJ. Coronary artery stents: identification and evaluation. J Clin Pathol. 2005 Aug;58(8):795-804. Table 3, Common stent complications; p.796.

Online Journal

  • Author(s). Article Title. Abbreviated journal name [Type of Medium(e.g. Internet)]. Date of Publication [cited Date of Citation];Vol(issue number): Location. Available from: URL

Kaul S, Diamond GA. Good enough: a primer on the analysis and interpretation of non-inferiority trials. Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2006 Jul 4 [cited 2007 Jan 4];145(1):62-9. Available from:

Happell B. The influence of education on the career preferences of undergraduate nursing students. Aust Electron J Nurs Educ [Internet]. 2002 Apr [cited 2007 Jan 8];8(1):[about 12 p.]. Available from:

Online Journal from a database

  • The general format for a reference to a database/retrieval system on the Internet, including punctuation:
    • For a single database:
      • Title [Type of Medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication [modified Date of Update/Revision; Date of Citation]. Available from: URL.

      Example: Database of Human Disease Causing Gene Homologues in Dictyostelium Discoideum [Internet]. San Diego (CA): San Diego Supercomputer Center; 2003 [modified 2003 Mar 30; cited 2007 Feb 2]. Available from:


  • Authors. Article Title. Newspaper Title (Edition). Date of Publication: Section: Location(Column Number).
  • Names of newspapers are NEVER abbreviated, although a leading "The" may be dropped if desired.
  • The location where a newspaper is published is added to the title if the newspaper title does not indicate it, either within or after the title, as appropriate.
  • Section information, if present, replaces volume and issue information.
  • Only the beginning page number of an article is included.

Gaul G. When geography influences treatment options. Washington Post (Maryland Ed.). 2005 Jul 24:Sect. A:12(col.1).

Conference Proceedings

  • Editors. Conference Title; Date of Conference; Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication. Pagination.

Dostrovsky JO, Carr DB, Koltenburg M, editors. Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Pain; 2002 Aug 17-22; San Diego, CA. Seattle: IASP Press; c2003.

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