All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | date | article title | journal title | volume | issue | page numbers | database name | release number | database publisher | cited year | url | document number

Electronic Journal Article from a Database

  • If there is a digital object identifier (DOI) for the source, include it in place of page numbers

Example of an Electronic Journal:
Skinner S. 2005. Evolution or intelligent design: the menu model of elementary science instruction. Science Educator. 32(2) 1975-2008. In Science Direct [database on the Internet]. Release 3. NY: Science Direct Publishing; 2005. 33p. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect/scienceeducator/32/2/skinner;(accessed 2008 May 4).

Multiple Authors

  • The first author's name is inverted, followed by "and" then the second author's full name
  • More than two: List first author's name inverted, use "and" before the last author's name
  • More than 10: List first 7 followed by "et al"


  • Capitalize titles sentence style, without quotation marks. Titles and subtitles are separated by a colon, and the first word of the subtitle is always capitalized


  • The month and day need to be included if there is no volume, issue numbers or dates of update
  • A year and possibly an exact date, a month, or a season, appears in parentheses after the volume or or issue number. Seasons are capitalized when standing in lieu of a month or an issue number. Neither month nor season is necessary when the issue number is given
  • For a span of months, use a hyphen (e.g., March-April)

Volumes and issues

  • The volume number follows the journal title without intervening punctuation and is not in italics. Issue number follows volume number
  • Write both volumes and issues numbers in Arabic numerals
  • Place issue numbers in parentheses
  • If no volume numbers, a comma follows the journal title

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